Inflammatory biomarkers found to be independently associated with dementia incidence, such as CX3CL1, EN-RAGE, LAP TGF-β-1 and VEGF-A, could play various roles in the pathogenesis of dementia. Kira Trares, MSc, of the University of Heidelberg, Germany, explains how these biomarkers, discovered using data from the ESTHER study, could have roles in the onset of dementia, and discusses the importance of further research in this field. It is suggested that CX3CL1 could regulate microglial action, LAP TGF-β-1 could be protective against amyloid-β deposition, and VEGF-A could increase the permeability of the blood brain barrier; all of which would have an impact on neuronal degeneration and cognitive decline. These biomarkers have potential to be used for early diagnosis of dementia and could also be used as novel targets to further understanding of the pathogenesis of dementia. Ms. Trares suggests that further research is required, and that researchers should not only focus on single biomarker associations but also on whole clusters of biomarkers, with the aim to form one comprehensive dementia prediction model. This interview took place during the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference (AAIC), 2021.