Understanding the neuropathology of dementia is critical to improving the care of patients. Here, Johannes Attems, MD, of Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK, provides an insight into this fascinating topic. He highlights how the ageing brain characteristically displays certain pathologies, of which amyloid beta and tau are the most prevalent. Next, he discusses the pathology observed in cases of neurodegeneration and how this differs from that seen in the normal ageing brain, referencing the relationship between amyloid beta, tau, TDP-43 and alpha-synuclein. Prof. Attems rounds up this discussion by covering the ways in which this pathology could be used for classification. This video was recorded at the Alzheimer’s Research UK (ARUK) Conference 2018, held in London, UK.